What is Buffer Solution?

What is buffer

What is buffer? A buffer solution is an aqueous solution that preserves a certain pH even when small quantities of acid or base are added to it. Buffer solutions are a vital component of many chemical reactions.

Buffers also play a role in biological systems, especially blood and other bodily fluids. These buffer systems keep the pH within ranges that are important for life.


A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH upon the addition of a small amount of an acid or base. These solutions are often used to maintain a stable pH in chemical reactions or processes that require a specific and relatively stable pH range.

Buffers are a key ingredient in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. In addition to enhancing the precision and accuracy of protein capture, polishing, and filtration steps, they can reduce manufacturing costs by increasing efficiency.

According to Madhavan Buddha, senior scientific manager at Biocon Research Limited, more than 2000 kL of buffers are used per year during the protein capture process.

The most important criterion for choosing a buffer is its solubility in water. This is important because most biological reactions take place in aqueous environments. Also, a buffer should not interact with biological membranes and must minimize salt effects.


Buffers are used in many chemistry experiments to maintain pH within a narrow range. This is because a large change in pH can interfere with many biochemical reactions.

The main purpose of a buffer is to resist the changes in hydrogen ion concentration that can occur as a result of internal and environmental factors. However, if a buffer is not prepared correctly or is not used correctly, experimental artifacts can occur, making it difficult to perform subsequent analysis.

Laboratory technicians must prepare and log accurate buffer solutions, ensuring that the final buffer solution is suitable for its intended use. This includes calculating the components (concentrations and amounts), weighing-in the components, preparing and dissolving the buffer, adjusting the pH, filling up to the desired volume, labelling the solution and storing for future usage.


A buffer solution is a solution that can resist change in pH when an acid or base is added to it. They are used in many chemistry and biochemical experiments because they can keep the pH relatively constant.

They are also used in laundry detergents to prevent the breakdown of their ingredients. Some household products, such as baby lotions, are also buffered to a pH of six to prevent rashes and inhibit the growth of bacteria.

Buffer solutions are made of a weak acid and one or more of its salts, which act as the acid’s conjugate base. An example of this is acetic acid and sodium acetate.

If a drop of acid is added to this buffer, the acetic acid will dissociate into hydrogen ions and acetate ions. The acetate ions will then combine with the hydrogen ions to form acetic acid, which is still a weak acid. This is called Le Chatelier’s principle. The resulting pH is slightly changed, but the overall equilibrium remains unchanged.

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Buffers are a type of chemical solution that has the ability to resist a small change in pH caused by a strong acid or base added to it. This is called buffer capacity and is critical to the practical performance of a chemical buffer.

Buffer solutions are formed by mixing weak acids and their conjugate bases in a similar ratio. This mixture can then be mixed with water to form a solution that does not change its pH.

Using a formula, scientists can calculate the pH of a buffer solution before and after a strong acid or base addition. This equation is based on the ionization constant (Ka) and concentrations of both the weak acid and its conjugate base in solution.

Scientists often use this expression, called the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, to calculate the pH of buffer solutions. It also allows them to determine the maximum buffering capacity of a weak acid-conjugate base pair. This is a good tool for understanding buffer capacity and the limitations of chemical buffers in biological systems.

Tom Smith

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